Enzymes are as essential to life as food and water, yet they remains one of the most underappreciated factors in the field of clinical nutrition. They are the catalysts that facilitate the breakdown of food into nutrients and other particles that are absorbed by, and excreted from, our bodies. Those who wish to support their digestive system, improve overall gut health and energy, boost immunity and alleviate uncomfortable digestive symptoms such as gas and bloating can benefit from enzyme supplementation.
AOR Zymes contains proteases to digest proteins, alpha amylase to digest starches, lipase to digest fats and alpha galactosidase for hard-to-digest polysaccharides found in legumes and vegetables that can cause gas and bloating. They are porcine pancreatic enzymes, meaning they are derived from pigs. Pancreatic enzymes from a mammalian source tend to be more effective than plant-based enzymes since they are similar to the enzymes naturally present in the human body.
Enzyme supplementation promotes the health of the digestive organs by facilitating digestion itself. It increases the efficiency of the digestive process by alleviating some of the burden from the digestive organs and improving nutrient absorption. Since the body cannot access nutrients in undigested food, the more food particles can be broken down, the more nutrients are made accessible to the body for absorption. In addition, poor breakdown of food particles is thought to contribute to allergies and various digestive diseases.
AOR Zymes is formulated with porcine derived pancreatic enzymes because they are more similar to human pancreatic enzymes and are far more effective for the digestion of problematic food than plant-derived enzymes. AOR Zymes helps reduce gas and bloating following a meal rich in carbohydrates such as vegetables, legumes and whole grains.
|Serving Size: 1 Capsule||Amount|
|Porcine pancreatic enzymes||166 mg|
|Amylase||min. 20 750 USP units|
|Lipase||min. 1 660 USP units|
|Protease||min. 20 750 USP units|
|Alpha Galactosidase||350 mg (350 GalU†)|
|Non-medical ingredients: |
silicon dioxide, dicalcium phosphate, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose (from milk), sodium stearyl fumarate. Capsule: hypromellose, gellan gum.
AOR™ guarantees that all ingredients have been declared on the label. Contains no wheat, corn, nuts, eggs, fish or shellfish.
Take 1 capsule immediately before a meal one to four times daily, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner. Use the smallest effective dose which controls symptoms. Swallow whole; do not open capsules.
Consult a health care practitioner for prolonged use or for use beyond 4 weeks. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are pregnant, breastfeeding, if you have diabetes, pancreatitis, pancreatic exocrine insufficiency or cystic fibrosis. Do not use if you are sensitive to pancreatic enzymes or pork proteins. Nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain/epigastric pain, heartburn, and/or hypersensitivity/allergy have been known to occur, in which case discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner. If symptoms persist or worsen, discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner.
Porcine pancreatic enzymes
The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.
The main application for digestive enzymes is to improve digestion. Enzymes increase absorption and help in the breakdown of food into nutrients. If you want to get more out of your food and improve your digestion, digestive enzymes are a good idea. They promote health in general by enhancing nutrient utilization; they spare digestive organs, may play a role in inflammation and could speed up recovery time. The ability of digestive enzymes at improving digestibility and enhancing nutrient absorption has clearly been demonstrated. They also appear to have anti-inflammatory effects and may speed up tissue repair and recovery.
Enzymes and Digestion
The main metabolites found in the food we eat are proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. They are essential to life and they are the only source of energy for our body. Like all nutrients, we must extract them from our food. The enzymes we produce during digestion allow this process to occur. Protease, lipase and amylase are the enzymes required to break down proteins, lipids and carbohydrates respectively. They are catabolic enzymes because they break and cleave larger molecules into particles that can be absorbed and utilized by our body. In order to make use of the nutrients found in the food we eat, we must digest them. Digestion is a metabolic process that requires considerable resources. Indeed, large portions of the proteins we absorb are used to support digestion and repair and replenish the cells of the gastrointestinal tract. Most cells found in the organs of the gastrointestinal tract have a very rapid turnover time. Likewise, a lot of energy is required for digestion. Enzymatic supplementation is especially helpful at increasing the efficiency of the digestive process, improving absorption and sparing the organs of digestion.
Digestion and Aging
As we age, we become less efficient at digesting our food. Gradual loss of function of the secretory mucosa of the stomach affects 25% of adults in their 60′s and 40% of those over 80. Liver function also declines with age. Our capacity to produce digestive enzymes is reduced and our ability to extract nutrients from the food we eat suffers. Digestive enzymes help offset this detrimental change. Adding enzymes to your diet allows for a more complete digestion and improves nutrient absorption. Animal trials confirm better nutrient utilization with enzyme supplementation.
Protease enzymes cleave proteins found in food into individual amino acids. Enzymes responsible for the breakdown of proteins such as protease are found in all cells and tissues because they degrade and remove unwanted proteins. They are thought to reduce inflammation because of their role in the breakdown of useless proteins.
Lipase breaks down fats to glycerol and fatty acids. The first step in fat utilization is the hydrolysis of triacylglycerol (stored fat) by lipases. Patients who cannot digest lipids because of pancreatic insufficiency usually receive supplemental porcine lipase.
Alpha Amylase is the animal enzyme responsible for the breakdown of starches to simple sugars. Starch is the nutritional reservoir for plants and is present in two forms: amylose and amylopectin. More than half the carbohydrates ingested by humans are starches. Amylase is released by the salivary glands and by the pancreas. Amylase cleaves starch into maltose, maltotriose and alpha-dextrin.
Alpha Galactosidase, found in AOR-Zymes, is the enzyme responsible for the breakdown of non-digestable oligosaccharides normally found in legumes but that cannot be broken down in the small intestine. Without the presence of the enzyme, these polysaccharides enter the large intestine and are broken down by bacteria. This results in the production of gas, bloating and general discomfort. The addition of Alpha Galactosidase allows for the digestion of the culprit polysaccharides. This is especially interesting for anybody consuming soy-containing products because galactooligosaccharides, rafffinose and stachyose, all found in soy, cannot be digested without alpha galactosidase.
In humans, pancreatic enzymatic supplementation is used for patients with cystic fibrosis because of pancreatic insufficiency.
Patients with cystic fibrosis usually need to supplement their diet with lipase because they cannot digest fat properly. Pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy leads to normalized lipase function in 40% of the patients. Porcine lipase has been the treatment of choice for steatorrhea due to pancreatic exocrine deficiency for several decades.
It appears that some enzymes also exhibit healing properties. A recent study in runners demonstrated that protease supplementation leads to superior recovery and diminished delayed-onset muscle soreness after running. Proteases may also facilitate muscle healing after exercise. Studies have shown that surgical wounds from patients receiving oral enzymatic preparations healed more rapidly than wounds in control populations.
Liprotamase is an enzyme clinically used in Europe for treating exocrine pancreatic insufficiency in cystic fibrosis patients from 7 years of age and older. In a phase III clinical trial, Liprotamase, which contains lipase, protease and amylase, was found to increase both fat absorption and nitrogen absorption (a marker of protein absorption) by an average of about 10%, decrease stool weight meaning that more food was absorbed, and was well tolerated. An extended trial found that the use of up to 5 capsules per day over 1 year was also safe and well-tolerated by most.
Many studies involving digestive enzymes are done on animals for a simple reason; stockbreeders are interested in enzymes because if they can increase the efficiency of nutrient assimilation in their animals, they spend less on feed.
In ducks, protein absorption increased by 2% with the addition of enzymes. In a study done on hens, enzymatic support augmented nutrient availability and enhanced gut morphology. Supplementation promotes healthier digestive organs by facilitating digestion. Turkeys given digestive enzymes had superior feed efficiency and longer villus in the jejunum. Longer villi increase the absorptive surface in the intestinal tract, which facilitates and improves growth. Unhealthy and atrophied villus results in malnutrition and increased intestinal permeability. Enzyme supplementation clearly leads to improved nutrient availability in animal studies performed on broilers, hens, turkeys, ducks and pigs.
In pigs, enzymatic supplementation increased starch and non-starch polysaccharide digestibility by 7.5%.
Due to the growing awareness of gut health, digestive issues and nutrient content in foods and how these relate to chronic conditions, digestive enzymes are increasing in popularity.
Enzymes have also been used in clinical settings in European countries for decades to improve surgery recovery.
Market trends for using enzymes to reduce inflammation, for tissue repair, for joint health and for heart health are increasing.
AOR Zymes utilizes porcine pancreatic enzymes because their composition is similar to human digestive enzymes. They are therefore superior to vegetable enzymes and benefit a longer historical use.
Borowitz D, Stevens C, Brettman LR, Campion M, Chatfield B, Cipolli M; Liprotamase 726 Study Group. International phase III trial of liprotamase efficacy and safety in pancreatic-insufficient cystic fibrosis patients. J Cyst Fibros. 2011 Dec;10(6):443-52.
Borowitz D, Stevens C, Brettman LR, Campion M, Wilschanski M, Thompson H; Liprotamase 767 Study Group. Liprotamase long-term safety and support of nutritional status in pancreatic-insufficient cystic fibrosis. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Feb;54(2):248-57.
Layer P, Keller J. Lipase supplementation therapy: standards, alternatives, and perspectives. Pancreas. 2003 Jan;26(1):1-7. Review.
Meng X, Slominski BA, Guenter W. The effect of fat type, carbohydrase, and lipase addition on growth performance and nutrient utilization of young broilers fed wheat-based diets. Poult Sci. 2004 Oct;83(10):1718-27.
Miller PC, Bailey SP, Barnes ME, Derr SJ, Hall EE. The effects of protease supplementation on skeletal muscle function and DOMS following downhill running. J Sports Sci. 2004 Apr;22(4):365-72.
Ritz CW, Hulet RM, Self BB, Denbow DM. Growth and intestinal morphology of male turkeys as influenced by dietary supplementation of amylase and xylanase. Poult Sci. 1995 Aug;74(8):1329-34.
Liprotamase long-term safety and support of nutritional status in pancreatic-insufficient cystic fibrosis.
J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012 Feb;54(2):248-57.
Borowitz D, Stevens C, Brettman LR, Campion M, Wilschanski M, Thompson H; Liprotamase 767 Study Group.
OBJECTIVES: Patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) who have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) require treatment with pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) to maintain adequate nutrition and age-appropriate growth and weight gain. Liprotamase, a nonporcine, highly purified biotechnology-derived PERT, has demonstrated significant efficacy in fat and protein malabsorption in patients with EPI compared to placebo. This study of liprotamase is the first ever long-term trial of a PERT to evaluate safety and nutritional parameters.
METHODS: This phase III 12-month open-label trial assessed the safety, tolerability, and long-term nutritional effects of liprotamase treatment in patients with CF and EPI 7 years and older. All of the patients were required to discontinue their long-term use of porcine PERTs at the time of enrollment. Dosing started at 1 capsule of liprotamase (32,500 US Pharmacopoeia (USP) units crystallized cross-linked lipase, 25,000 USP units crystallized protease, and 3,750 USP units amorphous amylase) per meal or snack; dose could be increased based on protocol-defined parameters.
RESULTS: A total of 215 subjects were enrolled and 214 received at least 1 dose of liprotamase (mean 5.5 capsules per day). During the study period, height, weight, and body mass index z scores and lung function as measured by forced expiratory volume in 1 second were stable. There were no clinically meaningful changes in laboratory tests, including levels of fat-soluble vitamins. Liprotamase was well tolerated without any significant safety concerns. Adverse events, primarily gastrointestinal, led to treatment discontinuation for 36 subjects (16.8%), most within the first 3 months.
CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a mean of 5.5 capsules of liprotamase per day, during meals and snacks, for up to 12 months was safe, well tolerated, and associated with age-appropriate growth and weight gain or weight maintenance in subjects with CF-related EPI.
International phase III trial of liprotamase efficacy and safety in pancreatic-insufficient cystic fibrosis patients.
J Cyst Fibros. 2011 Dec;10(6):443-52.
Borowitz D, Stevens C, Brettman LR, Campion M, Chatfield B, Cipolli M; Liprotamase 726 Study Group.
BACKGROUND: Most cystic fibrosis (CF) patients have exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) and need supplementation with pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT). Liprotamase, a novel non-porcine PERT containing highly purified biotechnology-derived lipase, protease, and amylase, has successfully undergone initial efficacy and safety testing.
METHODS: In this international phase III parallel-group, randomized-withdrawal, double-blind placebo-controlled trial, CF patients with EPI 7 years and older, including nutritionally and functionally compromised individuals, underwent baseline testing for coefficients of fat and nitrogen absorption (CFA and CNA) and stool weight and frequency while off PERT. After an open-label treatment period with liprotamase, subjects were randomized 1:1 to one liprotamase or placebo capsule taken with 3 meals and 2 snacks per day. The dose was fixed and increases were not allowed. The same measurements were obtained again after treatment with double-blind study drug or placebo.
RESULTS: 138 subjects were randomized. The adjusted least squares mean (LSM) difference between the treatment and placebo groups for change in CFA was 15.1% (p=0.001) for the subgroup with baseline CFA.
CONCLUSIONS: In a CF patient population reflective of that encountered in clinical practice, this trial demonstrated that liprotamase at a fixed dose of one capsule per meal or snack (5 capsules per day) was well tolerated and significantly increased fat absorption as measured by improvement in CFA, significantly increased protein absorption as measured by improvement in CNA, and significantly decreased stool weight.
The effects of protease supplementation on skeletal muscle function and DOMS following downhill running.
J Sports Sci. 2004 Apr;22(4):365-72.
Miller PC, Bailey SP, Barnes ME, Derr SJ, Hall EE.
Protease supplementation has been shown to attenuate soft tissue injury resulting from intense exercise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of protease supplementation on muscle soreness and contractile performance after downhill running. Ten matched pairs of male participants ran at a -10% grade for 30 min at 80% of their predicted maximal heart rate. The participants consumed two protease tablets (325 mg pancreatic enzymes, 75 mg trypsin, 50 mg papain, 50 mg bromelain, 10 mg amylase, 10 mg lipase, 10 mg lysozyme, 2 mg chymotrypisn) or a placebo four times a day beginning 1 day before exercise and lasting a total of 4 days. The participants were evaluated for perceived muscle soreness of the front and back of the dominant leg, pressure pain threshold by dolorimetry of the anterior medial, anterior lateral, posterior medial and posterior lateral quadrants of the thigh, and knee extension/flexion torque and power. The experimental group demonstrated superior recovery of contractile function and diminished effects of delayed-onset muscle soreness after downhill running when compared with the placebo group. Our results indicate that protease supplementation may attenuate muscle soreness after downhill running. Protease supplementation may also facilitate muscle healing and allow for faster restoration of contractile function after intense exercise.
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