Green Lipped FFA contains omega-3 fatty acids from the green lipped-mussel of New Zealand, which has unique benefits for osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis not seen with standard omega-3 supplements. This is due to the fact that it is high in rare omega-3s not found in most fish oil extracts: eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) and its precursor stearidonic acid (SDA). Not all green-lipped mussel products are fatty acid extracts – many simply contain the crude dried mussel powder. AOR’s Green Lipped FFA is a concentrated fatty acid extract, making it much more potent than common dried mussel products.
Few people know that ETA and SDA are actually superior to other omega-3s at quenching the fires of inflammation such as in rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis patients, giving more potent anti-inflammatory benefits at significantly lower doses. They act in similar ways to non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) but by multiple mechanisms of action and without the negative side effects. Additional research has found that Green Lipped FFA can provide relief for bronchial inflammation, and animal studies have suggested that it may be beneficial in premenstrual syndrome (PMS).
Green Lipped FFA is an excellent alternative to conventional fish oils for anyone who wants to address inflammation, or simply to increase their intake of omega-3 fatty acids.
Green Lipped FFA is the stable free fatty acid mixture of the New Zealand green-lipped mussel. This compound contains a unique profile of omega-3 and other fatty acids not found in significant amounts in standard fish oil supplements. Studies show that this unique fatty acid extract with its physiological effects is more effective against inflammation than conventional fish oils.
|Serving Size: 1 Softgel||Amount|
|Green-Lipped Mussel fatty acid extract (Perna canaliculus)||50 mg|
NOTE: Store in a dark, cool, dry place. Characteristic odour and cloudiness that may occur below room temperature are normal and not indicative of degradation.
|Non-medical ingredients: |
olive oil, D-alpha tocopherol (from soy). Softgel: gelatin (bovine), glycerin.
AOR™ guarantees that all ingredients have been declared on the label. Contains no wheat, gluten, corn, nuts, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, dairy or eggs.
Take 2 softgels twice daily for the first 2 months, followed by 1 softgel twice daily for the next 4 months, take with a fat-containing meal, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.
Consult a health care practitioner for use beyond 6 months or if symptoms persist or worsen. Do not use if pregnant or breastfeeding.
Green Lipped Mussel (New Zealand)
The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.
Introducing ETA and SDA
Eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) and its precursor stearidonic acid (SDA) are omega-3 fatty acids you probably haven’t heard much about. Because ETA and SDA are so rare in food sources, there’s been little study of their role in the effects of diet on chronic disease, (unlike eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), which are commonly found in fatty fish and in regular fish-oil supplements.
The Green Lipped Mussel
ETA and SDA are found in abundance in the green lipped mussel found off the coast of New Zealand. Green lipped mussel extract is a rich source of a unique array of rare omega-3 fatty acids, making it an excellent alternative to regular fish-oil supplements.
Omega-3 for Inflammation
Omega-3 fatty acids are now well-known inflammation fighters. Controlled clinical trials clearly show that they fight inflammation, reducing and in some cases eliminating the need for anti-inflammatory drugs with their disturbing short- and long-term side effects. Both omega-3 fatty acids, and nearly all anti- inflammatory drugs, work through their effects on a group of local, cellular “hormones” called eicosanoids.
“Good” and “Bad” Eicosanoids
Eicosanoids are messengers that cells use to communicate with one another, coordinating their activities. Some (“bad”) eicosanoids promote inflammation, while other (“good”) eicosanoids have potent anti-inflammatory functions. Thus, the body’s inflammatory response rests in large part on the balance of “good” and “bad” eicosanoids produced by your cells when they hear the immune system’s inflammatory call.
The Counterproductivity of COX-2 Inhibitors
“Bad” eicosanoids are made from an omega-6 fatty acid called arachidonic acid. Most drug approaches to inflammation, from aspirin and the older NSAIDs (Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs, like ibuprofen) to the new “COX-2 inhibitor” drugs, like celecoxib [Celebrex®] and rofecoxib [Vioxx®]), work by inhibiting the formation of the series-2 prostanoid group of “bad” eicosanoids. Prostanoids are formed from arachidonic acid by an enzyme called cyclooxygenase, or COX. (AA).
But while these drugs certainly provide symptomatic relief in the short term, COX-2 inhibitors can actually accelerate the underlying inflammatory disease in the long term, by diverting arachidonic acid into another, slower-acting, and ultimately more destructive pathway: the lipoxygenase (LOX) enzyme pathway, which produces the ravaging series-4 leukotrienes. Leukotrienes are the eicosanoids released by immune cells involved in the body’s inflammatory responses, and are more responsible for the long-term consequences of inflammation, which can result when a deranged immune system attacks the very body that it was designed to defend.
Therefore, blocking the COX pathway alone results in an imbalance – an imbalance that ultimately trades short-term gain for long-term pain. What people suffering with inflammation and osteoarthritis need most is a “dual pathway inhibitor:” a molecule which will shut down COX-2 and LOX alike, preventing the formation of all “bad” eicosanoids.
Transnational pharmaceutical giants are racing to create such drugs. But Nature is already waiting for them at the finish line, with two rare omega-3 fatty acids: ETA and SDA.
The Type of Fish Oil Extract Matters
While ETA is very rare in the normal Western diet, it is found in significant amounts in the fatty acids of the green-lipped mussel (Perna canaliculus). Many early studies in humans and animals found that crude extracts of Perna were effective in reducing inflammation, and in relieving the symptoms of osteoarthritis – but other studies found no effect.
The reason, as later studies confirmed, was that the anti-inflammatory properties of the green-lipped mussel were due to their content of SDA and ETA. Most green-lipped mussel supplements are not stable fatty acid extracts, but are crude concentrates or are based on mucopolysaccharides. When seven commercially-available green mussel products were put to the test by comparing them with a stable fatty extract rich in ETA and SDA, the fatty acid extract revealed strong anti-inflammatory powers, while the other extracts were found to vary wildly in strength. Great variations were even revealed in different batches of the same product.
Fatty Acids Are the Key
More tellingly, when the inflammation-fighting powers of a stable ETA- and SDA-rich extract were compared with crude P. canaliculus extracts whose fatty acid content had been deliberately removed, the fatty acid extract of the mussel exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effects, while the ETA-depleted preparation was found to be completely ineffective.
A Human Trial
In a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial involving osteoarthritis sufferers, significant improvements were reported in morning stiffness, joint tenderness and measures of joint functionality during the double-blinded phase among subjects taking the SDA/ETA-rich oil. Assessment by doctors and patients concluded that 70% of the persons with osteoarthritis had experienced a good response.
How Does It Work?
Why does the SDA- and ETA-rich oil of Perna canaliculus so remarkably outperform other omega-3s? The anti-inflammatory powers of all omega-3 fatty acids are grounded in biochemistry: the omega-3s’ ability to bind up key enzymes involved in making “bad” eicosanoids. And as studies show, ETA, and SDA working through it, more potently prevent the formation of both types of “bad” eicosanoids: series-2 prostanoids and series-4 leukotrienes. Mechanisms are believed to include:
Multiple Anti-Inflammatory Mechanisms
In addition to these advantages, SDA and ETA share anti-inflammatory mechanisms that are common to all omega-3 fatty acids. Thus, ETA and SDA are natural COX-2 inhibitors. Remarkably, omega-3s accomplish this feat not only because their natural metabolites bind up COX-2, but also by actually working at the gene level to reduce the production of COX-2 from the DNA code. And SDA/ETA block the formation of inflammatory cytokines (immune system messenger chemicals) such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1). Revolutionary new painkillers – such as etanercept (Enbrel®) are so effective because they target TNF-alpha.
ETA and SDA Top the Omega-3s
Two direct comparison studies have been performed in animals to compare the anti-inflammatory effects of the ETA- and SDA-rich oil of P. canaliculus against those of salmon, cod liver, flaxseed, and two mixed fish oils. These studies clearly show that the ETA- and SDA-rich fatty acid extract of P. canaliculus is far superior to other omega-3 sources at quenching the fires of inflammation, giving more potent anti-inflammatory benefits at significantly lower doses.
Using the series of tests discussed above, rear paw swelling was reduced by 96-98% by the ETA/SDA-rich oil, while swelling was only lowered by 7 to 38% with common omega-3s! These results are all the more remarkable because the dose of ETA/SDA-rich P. canaliculus oil was only about 1% of that used for the standard omega-3 oils.
Another recent study tested the effects of these novel fatty acids in a rat model of inflammation. After 15 days of administering omega-3 fatty acid extracts from P. canaliculus, rear paw swelling was significantly reduced by 34% and fore paw inflammation by 60%. Deterioration in total body condition was reduced by 52% compared to controls. The extract also decreased inflammatory response in the spleen, and it had a 35-70% inhibition of leukotriene metabolites. Serum levels of the inflammatory biomarker ceruloplasmin were reduced compared to control mice, indicating a less severe disease state. Interestingly, the fatty acids had comparable potency to the known anti-inflammatory agent piroxicam. The fatty acid extract had no adverse side effects.
The inflammation-fighting, cognition-supporting and mood-enhancing omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are well known for their health benefits.
However, fewer people are aware of the benefits that Eicosatetraenoic acid (ETA) and its precursor stearidonic acid (SDA) provide. They are also valuable omega-3 fatty acids and are not as commonly found in food sources.
In addition, most green-lipped mussel supplements available on the market are not stable fatty acid extracts but are crude concentrates or are based on mucopolysaccharides. This makes them less effective.
ETA/SDA-based omega-3 supplements are an orthomolecular revolution, providing powerful support against inflammation in ways that other natural supplements can’t match. The biochemistry explains the results seen in animal studies and clinical trials. AOR’s Green Lipped FFA is sourced off the coast of New Zealand. It is is a stable fatty acid extract, meaning that its anti-inflammatory benefits give results that can be relied upon. Benefit from the unique array of rare omega-3 fatty acids found in Green Lipped FFA, an excellent alternative to conventional fish oils.
Brien S, Prescott P, Coghlan B, Bashir N, Lewith G. Systematic review of the nutritional supplement Perna Canaliculus (green-lipped mussel) in the treatment of osteoarthritis. QJM. 2008 Mar;101(3):167-79. Epub 2008 Jan 25. Review.
Darlington LG, Stone TW. Antioxidants and fatty acids in the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders. Br J Nutr. 2001 Mar; 85(3): 251-69.
Gibson SL, Gibson RG. The treatment of arthritis with a lipid extract of Perna canaliculus: a randomized trial. Compl Ther Med. 1998; 6: 122-6.
Macrides TA, Treschow AP, Kalafatis N, Wright PF, Wynne PM. The anti-inflammatory effects of n-3 tetraenoic fatty acids isolated from a lipid extract from the mussel, Perna canaliculus. Prostaglandins Leukot Essent Fatty Acids. 1997 Aug; 57(2): 250(Abs W20).
Sing M, Hodges LD, Wright PFA, Cheah DMY, Wynne PM, Kalafatis N and Macrides TA. The CO2-SFE crude lipid extract and the free fatty acid extract from Perna canaliculs have anti-inflammatory effects on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. 2008;Part B 149:251-258.
The CO2-SFE crude lipid extract and the free fatty acid extract from Perna canaliculus have anti-inflammatory effects on adjuvant-induced arthritis in rats.
Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, Part B 149 (2008) 251-258.
Singh M, Hodges LD, Wright PFA, Cheah DMY, Wynne PM, Kalafatis N, Macrides TA.
The anti-inflammatory (AI) activity of a supercritical fluid extract (CO2-SFE) of tartaric acid-stabilised Perna canaliculus mussel powder, and of the free fatty acid (FFA) class separated from the CO2-SFE extract by column chromatography, was investigated in the rat adjuvant arthritis model. Administration of the CO2-SFE extract (100 mg/kg BW/day s.c.) for 15 days post-adjuvant inoculation significantly reduced rear paw swelling by 34% and the deterioration in total body condition by 52% in arthritic rats, compared to vehicle controls. These observations were accompanied by a decreased serum ceruloplasmin oxidase activity, and reduced inflammatory response of the spleen. The mussel FFA extract given at one third of the dose (30 mg/kg BW/day s.c.) and for a shorter treatment period (5 days during the inflammatory phase) achieved an even greater AI activity, and was equipotent to piroxicam (2 mg/kg BW/day s.c.). Preliminary toxicology assessment using both arthritic and nonarthritic (healthy) rats revealed no significant differences between the mussel treatment groups and respective vehicle controls in either organ weights, tissue histology or selected biochemical parameters. These results indicate the CO2-SFE crude lipid extract and its FFA components from stabilised P. canaliculus mussel powder contain biologically significant AI activity in vivo, with no apparent adverse side effects.
Systematic review of the nutritional supplement Perna Canaliculus (green-lipped mussel) in the treatment of osteoarthritis.
QJM. 2008 Mar;101(3):167-79.
Brien S, Prescott P, Coghlan B, Bashir N, Lewith G. Department of Primary Care, University of Southampton, Aldermoor Health Centre, Aldermoor Close, Southampton S016 5ST, UK. firstname.lastname@example.org.
Complementary treatments for osteoarthritis (OA) are sought by patients for symptomatic relief and to avoid the iatrogenic effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatories. This systematic review evaluates the efficacy of the nutritional supplement Perna Canaliculus (green-lipped mussel, GLM) in the treatment of OA and substantially adds to previous work by focussing solely on GLM use in OA as well providing a re-analysis of the original trial data. Randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials (comparative, placebo-controlled or crossover) were considered for inclusion from Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Amed, Cinahl, Scopus and NeLH databases where adults with OA of any joint were randomized to receive either GLM vs. placebo, no additional intervention (usual care), or an active intervention. The methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the JADAD scale. Four RCTs were included, three placebo controlled, the fourth a comparative trial of GLM lipid extract vs. stabilized powder extract. No RCTs comparing GLM to conventional treatment were identified. All four studies assessed GLM as an adjunctive treatment to conventional medication for a clinically relevant time in mild to moderate OA. All trials reported clinical benefits in the GLM treatment group but the findings from two studies cannot be included in this review because of possible un-blinding and inappropriate statistical analysis. The data from the two more rigorous trials, in conjunction with our re-analysis of original data suggests that GLM may be superior to placebo for the treatment of mild to moderate OA. As a credible biological mechanism exists for this treatment, further rigorous investigations are required to assess efficacy and optimal dosage.
Antioxidants and fatty acids in the amelioration of rheumatoid arthritis and related disorders.
Br J Nutr 2001 Mar; 85(3): 251-69.
Darlington LG, Stone TW.
The generation of reactive oxygen species (free radicals) is an important factor in the development and maintenance of rheumatoid arthritis in humans and animal models. One source of free radicals is nitric oxide produced within the synoviocytes and chondrocytes and giving rise to the highly toxic radical peroxynitrite. Several cytokines, including tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) are involved in the formation of free radicals, partly by increasing the activity of nitric oxide synthase. Indeed, nitric oxide may mediate some of the deleterious effects of cytokines on bone resorption. Aspirin, tetracyclines, steroids and methotrexate can suppress nitric oxide synthase. Dietary antioxidants include ascorbate and the tocopherols and beneficial effects of high doses have been reported especially in osteoarthritis. There is also evidence for beneficial effects of beta-carotene and selenium, the latter being a component of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase. The polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) include the n-3 compounds, some of which are precursors of eicosanoid synthesis, and the n-6 group which can increase formation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNFalpha and interleukin-6, and of reactive oxygen species. Some prostaglandins, however, suppress cytokine formation, so that n-3 PUFA often oppose the inflammatory effects of some n-6-PUFA. gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) is a precursor of prostaglandin E1, a fact which may account for its reported ability to ameliorate arthritic symptoms.Fish oil supplements, rich in n-3 PUFA such as eicosapentaenoic acid have been claimed as beneficial in rheumatoid arthritis, possibly by suppression of the immune system and its cytokine repertoire. Some other oils of marine origin (e.g. from the green-lipped mussel) and a range of vegetable oils (e.g. olive oil and evening primrose oil) have indirect anti-inflammatory actions, probably mediated via prostaglandin E1. Overall, there is a growing scientific rationale for the use of dietary supplements as adjuncts in the treatment of inflammatory disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
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