Ortho Core

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Ortho Core

AOR CODE: AOR04021

Beyond Core Nutrients


  • Simply the most advanced multivitamin available

  • Delivers the most effective forms and doses of each vitamin and mineral

  • Provides biologically crucial antioxidants and phytonutrients


Use this product for: Energy/Fatigue Foundation Nutrition Sports Nutrition

Details

There are nutritional deficiencies, and then there are nutritional imbalances. Nutritional imbalances can result from an imbalanced diet, or from carelessly formulated multivitamins providing ineffective or harmful forms, doses and ratios. Balance and diversity, comprehensiveness and potency: these have always been the guiding principles behind Ortho•Core, principles that culminated in the development of a truly complete and superior multivitamin. Ortho•Core provides all of the recognized vitamins and minerals in their most effective forms and doses available, topped off with the most powerful anti-aging phytonutrients and antioxidants known. 

A balanced and well-designed multivitamin is fundamental to any supplement regimen. Unfortunately, factors such as market trends, the unfortunate tendency toward “one-capsule-a-day” formulas, products that provide equal quantities of different nutrients (that the body requires in different amounts), inappropriate doses and attempts to achieve the longest list of ingredients possible result in multivitamins that may not end up benefiting the consumer’s health. The problem is that to achieve these results, quality is often sacrificed, using ingredients with poor bioavailability or lower quality forms of nutrients, or doses that are inadequate, excessive or imbalanced. Ortho•Core is designed to correct all these common formulation problems while providing some of the most biologically active antioxidants and powerful phytonutrients available.

Anyone looking for a superior multivitamin or a single supplement for overall health will find that Ortho•Core is simply the most advanced multivitamin available even if the full serving of 6 caps is not consumed daily.

Label Info

Discussion

OrthoCore™ is an advanced, balanced, and comprehensive multi-vitamin/mineral supplement. Ortho Core™ contains a broad spectrum of vitamins, minerals, antioxidants and other factors for the maintenance of good health and to help the body metabolize carbohydrates, fats and proteins.

Product Variation

Product Code NPN Size
AOR04021 80025762 180 VEGI-CAPS

Supplements Facts

Serving Size: 6 Capsules Amount
Vitamin A Complex
Retinol (palmitate) 200 mcg/110 mcg RAE
Natural Source Mixed Carotenoids
beta-Carotene 1.8 mg
Cryptoxanthin 250 mcg/208 IU
Lutein 6.8 mg
Astaxanthin 2 mg
Lycopene 5 mg
Vitamin B Complex
B1 (Thiamin) 9 mg
B2 (Riboflavin) 2.5 mg
B3 (Niacin - from 126 mg inositol hexanicotinate) 115 mg
B5 (d-Ca Pantothenate 100 mg
B6 (Pyridoxal-5’-phosphate) 100 mg
B12 (Methylcobalamin) 647 mcg
Folate (Calcium L-5-Methyltetrahydrofolate) 800 mcg
Biotin 300 mcg
Choline (bitartrate) 100 mg
Inositol 100 mg
Vitamin C Complex
Vitamin C (magnesium ascorbate) 120 mg
Mixed Citrus Bioflavonoids 25 mg
Quercetin (dihydrate) 65 mg
Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol) 25 mcg/1000 IU
Vitamin E Complex
Mixed Tocopherols: 99.6 mg
RRR-Alpha-Tocopherol 13.8 mg
Gamma-Tocopherol 58.2 mg
Delta-Tocopherol 27.6 mg
Mixed Tocotrienols: 10 mg
Alpha-Tocotrienol 3 mg
Gamma-Tocotrienol 5.5 mg
Delta-Tocotrienol 1.5 mg
Vitamin K2 (Menatetrenone) 120 mcg
Minerals
Boron (citrate) 700 mcg
Calcium (Calcium carbonate, Citrate-Malate) 300 mg
Chromium (picolinate) 100 mcg
Copper (citrate) 1.5 mg
Iodine (potassium iodide) 150 mcg
Magnesium (aspartate, oxide, ascorbate) 210 mg
Potassium (chloride) 50 mg
Manganese (bisglycinate) 2.3 mg
Molybdenum (Na molybdate) 45 mcg
Selenium (Selenomethionine) 55 mcg
Silicon (Na Metasilicate) 25 mg
Vanadium (citrate) 18 mcg
Zinc (citrate) 11 mg
Phytonutrients & Antioxidants
trans-Resveratrol 1.8 mg
Grape Seed Extract (85% Oligomeric proanthocyanidins) 100 mg
Alpha-Lipoic Acid 150 mg
Co-Enzyme Q10 (ubidecarenone) 30 mg
Green Tea Extract (45% EgCG, <2% caffeine) 140 mg
N-Acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) 200 mg

Sources: Tocopherols: soy. Tocotrienols: palm.

Non-medical ingredients:

zeaxanthin, chlorophyllin copper complex, broccoli extract, microcrystalline cellulose, tocopherols, coconut & palm oils, medium chain triglycerides, polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, starch (pea, rice, soy), cellulose gum, acacia gum, sodium alginate, ascorbyl palmitate, sucrose, silicon dioxide, dicalcium and tricalcium phosphate, dextrin, maltodextrin, sorbitan stearate, hyprolose, sodium stearyl fumarate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, microcrystalline cellulose. Capsule: hypromellose.

Guarantees

AOR™ guarantees that all ingredients have been declared on the label. Contains no wheat, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, dairy or eggs.

Adult Dosage

Take up to 6 capsules daily with meals, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner. Take a few hours before or after taking other medications.

Cautions

Do not take if you are pregnant or nursing. Consult a health care practitioner prior to use if you are taking blood thinners, blood pressure medication, antibiotics, nitroglycerin, have diabetes, cystinuria or a liver disorder. Consult a health care practitioner if you develop symptoms of liver trouble or for use beyond 12 weeks. If you experience sweating, paleness, chills, headache, dizziness and/or confusion, discontinue use and consult a health care practitioner (as these may be symptoms of serious low blood sugar).

Source

Pharmaceutical synthesis

Natural botanical extracts

Biofermentation

Main Application

General health

Disclaimer

The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.

Research

Background

Superior Forms and Balanced Doses

AOR’s Ortho Core contains superior forms of nutrients with balanced dosages based on scientific studies, ensuring that the nutrients work synergistically toward optimal health. Ortho-Core™ sets itself apart from other multivitamins in two ways: the first is that it does not concern itself with mega-doses. Instead, it pays extraordinary attention to balancing ratios of essential nutrients to one another in order to achieve a synergistic result. Secondly, it pays meticulous attention to combining diversely superior sources of those essential nutrients and balancing their ratios for optimal synergy as well.

The Cutting Edge of Health

Ortho Core contains a broad spectrum of vitamins, minerals and phytonutrients. It includes vitamin A with optimal doses of various carotenoids. It contains B vitamins in their active forms, and vitamin C along with various bioflavonoids. It also contains natural forms and natural ratios of all 8 vitamin Es, all of which have important roles and balance each other. Minerals in Ortho Core include zinc and copper in a balanced ratio, and important trace minerals such as boron, silicon and vanadium. To give the formula an extra edge, Ortho Core contains a number of health-enhancing phytonutrients backed by science including grape seed extract, EGCG from green tea, lipoic acid and coenzyme Q10.
Vitamin A Complex: Ortho-Core™ contains a safe dosage of natural vitamin A combined with an innovative diversity of carotenoids.
Vitamin B Complex: The amount for each and every B vitamin is selected for the body’s most efficient utilization. Ortho-Core™ includes B-vitamins in their effective co-enzyme forms, including methylcobalamin (B-12), pyridoxal-5’-phosphate (B-6) and 5-MTHF (folate).

Vitamin E Complex: Vitamin E is a complex that consists of eight different molecules. Most supplements contain only one vitamin E molecule: synthetic alpha-tocopherol, which actually lowers the levels of the other E molecules. The most common E molecule in food (and in Ortho-Core™), is actually gamma-tocopherol. New evidence suggests that gamma-tocopherol, far more than alpha-tocopherol, could yield remarkable results against numerous health disorders. The ratios of the E molecules present in Ortho Core are the ratios found in nature since it is a natural extract with no synthetic vitamin E.

Vitamin C Complex: Ortho-Core’s vitamin C complex begins with a powerful dose of magnesium ascorbate, but it also contains a bioflavonoid mix that includes Quercetin, a ubiquitous micronutrient known for its heart benefits. Bioflavonoids enhance the activity of Vitamin C.
Zinc-Copper Balance: Ortho-Core™ includes a safe and balanced ratio of these two interdependent essential minerals.

Trace Minerals: The evidence is compelling that boron, silicon and vanadium are necessary to maintain good health, and Ortho-Core™ includes them all.
Phytonutrients and Antioxidants: There are the thousands of biologically active substances found in plants, and many of these “phytonutrients” have been shown to be protective, disease-preventing compounds. Ortho-Core™ contains phytonutrients that are strongly supported by studies on humans. These make up the icing on the cake of the best multi on the market.

Deficiencies vs. Imbalances

It has been well-established that the diet of mainstream society is rampantly deficient in essential nutrients. The need to redress these deficiencies has necessitated the existence of multivitamin formulations, and these formulations react to perceived deficiencies. If a study suggests we are not getting enough of a vitamin or mineral, supplement manufacturers will often add an arbitrarily large amount of the nutrient to their multivitamin formulations. While this might make some short-term sense, it does not take into account that all nutrients work together and in synergy. In addition, randomly mixing nutrients together in massive or unbalanced doses is not necessarily beneficial, and can even be wasteful or even toxic, especially if the nutrients are not from quality sources.

Research

Ortho-Core Research

Ortho-CoreTM sets itself apart from other multivitamins in two ways: the first is that it does not concern itself with mega-doses. Instead, it pays extraordinary attention to balancing ratios of essential nutrients to one another in order to achieve a synergistic result. Secondly, it pays meticulous attention to combining diversely superior sources of those essential nutrients and balancing their ratios for optimal synergy as well.

Research Studies on vitamin A

Although β-carotene has been considered to promote normal cell acitivity, other types of carotenoids, such as α-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, etc., may also contribute to promoting normal cell function, since these carotenoids usually co-exist with beta-carotene in green and yellow vegetables and daily food stuffs, and are detectable in human blood and tissues. Ortho-core contains a diversity of carotenoids.

Beta carotene and CVD

The role of b-carotene, a-tocopherol, and vitamin C in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is  also controversial. Prospective studies on g-tocopherol and carotenoids other than b-carotene are sparse. A study assessed relations between the intake of different carotenoids, a- and g-tocopherol, and vitamin C with 15-y CVD mortality in elderly men who participated in the Zutphen Elderly Study. Information on diet and potential confounding factors was collected in 1985, 1990, and 1995. In 1985, 559 men (mean age ;72 y) free of chronic diseases were included in the current analysis. After 15 y of follow-up, comprising 5744 person-years, 197 men had died from CVD. After adjustment for age, smoking, and other potential lifestyle and dietary confounders, relative risks (RR) (95% CI) of CVD death for a 1-SD increase in intake were 0.81 (0.66–0.99) for a-carotene and 0.80 (0.66–0.97) for b-carotene. Carrots were the primary source of a- and b-carotene and their consumption was related to a lower risk of death from CVD (adjusted RR, 0.83; 95% CI ¼ 0.68–1.00). Intakes of carotenoids other than a- and b-carotene were not associated with CVD mortality, nor were vitamin C and a- and g tocopherol. In conclusion the study found that dietary intakes of a-carotene and b-carotene are inversely associated with CVD mortality in elderly men.

Metabolic syndrome and beta carotene

A study found that higher total carotenoid intakes, mainly those of b-carotene and lycopene, were associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome and with lower measures of adiposity and serum triglyceride concentrations in middle-aged and elderly men.
Inadequate micronutrient intake among older adults is common despite the increased prevalence of fortified/enriched foods in the American diet. Although many older adults take multivitamin supplements in an effort to compensate, there are not many studies examining the benefits of this behavior. One study investigated whether a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement can improve micronutrient status, plasma antioxidant capacity and cytokine production in healthy, free-living older adults already consuming a fortified diet. It was found that Supplementation with a multivitamin formulated at about 100% Daily Value can decrease the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin status in older adults and improve their micronutrient status to levels associated with reduced risk for several chronic diseases.

Multivitamins and their impact on behavior

Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been cut almost in half after implementing nutrient-dense diets that are consistent with the World Health Organization’s guidelines for fats, sugar, starches, and protein ratios. Two controlled trials tested whether the cause of the behavioral improvements was psychological or biological in nature by comparing the behavior of offenders who either received placebos or vitamin-mineral supplements designed to provide the micronutrient equivalent of a well-balanced diet. These randomized trials reported that institutionalized offenders, aged 13 to 17 years or 18 to 26 years, when given active tablets produced about 40% less violent and other antisocial behavior than the placebo controls. However, generalization could not be made to typical schoolchildren without a controlled trial examining violence and antisocial behavior in public schools.

A study was carried out to determine if schoolchildren, aged 6 to 12 years, who are given low dose vitamin-mineral tablets will produce significantly less violence and antisocial behavior in school than classmates who are given placebos. Of the 468 students randomly assigned to active or placebo tablets, the 80 who were disciplined at least once between September 1st and May 1st served as the research sample. During intervention, the 40 children who received active tablets were disciplined, on average, 1 time each, a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior than the 1.875 times each for the 40 children who received placebos (95% confidence interval, 29% to 65%, < 5 .020). The children who took active tablets produced lower rates of antisocial behavior in 8 types of recorded infractions: threats/fighting, vandalism, being disrespectful, disorderly conduct, defiance, obscenities, refusal to work or serve, endangering others, and nonspecified offenses.

Poor nutritional habits in children that lead to low concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood, impair brain function and subsequently cause violence and other serious antisocial behavior. Correction of nutrient intake, either through a well-balanced diet or low-dose vitamin-mineral supplementation, corrects the low concentrations of vitamins in blood, improves brain function and subsequently lowers institutional violence and antisocial behavior by almost half.
Multivitamins and the brain

The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on the intelligence of American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial. Many medical, nutrition, and education professionals have long suspected that poor diet impairs the academic performance of Western schoolchildren; academic performance often improves after improved diet. However, others have suggested that such academic gains may be due to psychologic effects rather than nutrition. To resolve this issue, two independent research teams conducted randomized trials in which children were given placebos or low-dose vitamin-mineral tablets designed to raise nutrient intake to the equivalent of a well-balanced diet. Both teams reported significantly greater gains in nonverbal intelligence among the supplemented groups. The findings were important because of the apparent inadequacy of diet they revealed and the magnitude of the potential for increased intelligence. However, none of the ten subsequent replications, or the two original trials, were without limitations leaving this issue in controversy. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial using stratified randomization within each teacher’s class based on preintervention nonverbal intelligence was used.

The study confirmed that vitamin-mineral supplementation modestly raised the nonverbal intelligence of some groups of Western schoolchildren by 2 to 3 points but not that of most Western schoolchildren, presumably because the majority were already adequately nourished. This study also confirms that vitamin-mineral supplementation markedly raises the non-verbal intelligence of a minority of Western schoolchildren, presumably because they were too poorly nourished before supplementation for optimal brain function. Because nonverbal intelligence is closely associated with academic performance, it follows that schools with children who consume substandard diets should find it difficult to produce academic performance equal to those schools with children who consume diets that come closer to providing the nutrients suggested in the U.S. RDA. The parents of schoolchildren whose academic performance is substandard would be well advised to seek a nutritionally oriented physician for assessment of their children’s nutritional status as a possible etiology.

Vitamins and homocysteine level

Changes in nutritional status during supplementation with a high-potency multivitamin-mineral supplement were examined in 22 physically active men randomly assigned to take a supplement (n = 11) or placebo (n = 11) for approximately 12 wk. Four-day dietary intakes, blood concentrations, and urinary excretions of selected vitamins and minerals were measured before, during (approximately 6 and 12 wk), and after supplementation. No changes were observed in blood concentrations of vitamins A and C and measures of zinc, magnesium, and calcium status; the supplement provided less than 300% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of these nutrients. In contrast, blood concentrations of thiamin, riboflavin, vitamins B-6 and B-12, pantothenate, and biotin increased significantly by 6 wk to values that were maintained until the end of the supplementation. These vitamins were provided in amounts that ranged from 396% (biotin) to 6250% (vitamin B-6) of the RDA. Urinary excretions of these vitamins also increased during supplementation and both blood and urine values returned to presupplementation concentrations at approximately 13.5 wk postsupplementation.

Elevated homocysteine has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although multivitamin use has been associated with low plasma homocysteine concentrations in several observational studies, no clinical trials have been conducted using multivitamin/mineral supplements to lower homocysteine. We determined whether a multivitamin/mineral supplement formulated at about 100% Daily Value will further lower homocysteine concentration and improve B-vitamin status in healthy older adults already consuming a diet fortified with folic acid. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 free-living men and women aged 50-87 y with total plasma homocysteine concentrations of > or =8 micromol/L received either a multivitamin/mineral supplement or placebo for 56 d while consuming their usual diet. After the 8-wk treatment, subjects taking the supplement had significantly higher B-vitamin status and lower homocysteine concentration than controls (P: < 0.01). Plasma folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and vitamin B-12 concentrations were increased 41.6, 36.5 and 13.8%, respectively, in the supplemented group, whereas no changes were observed in the placebo group. The mean homocysteine concentration decreased 9.6% in the supplemented group (P: < 0.001) and was unaffected in the placebo group. There were no significant changes in dietary intake during the intervention. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation can improve B-vitamin status and reduce plasma homocysteine concentration in older adults already consuming a folate-fortified diet.

Market Trends

Multivitamins on the market often fall into several traps:

  • Unbalanced ratios, random dosages or equal amounts of all nutrients
  • Cheap sources that take up less room so that more can be crammed into one capsule
  • They are composed of entirely synthetic forms. Some nutrients are better absorbed as a natural extract than others when synthesized, while for some it makes no difference.
  • Most one-a-days don’t provide all the essential vitamins and minerals, and they provide negligible amounts of each because it’s nearly impossible to fit valuable amounts into one capsule or tablet.

AOR Advantage

Ortho•Core is carefully formulated to provide balanced ratios, safe and effective doses, and the most bioavailable forms of nutrients, all supported by research. The formula is then enhanced with some of the most biologically active and important antioxidants and phytonutrients known in order to make AOR’s Ortho•Core your one-stop multi for maintaining good health.

References

Baggio E, Gandini R, Plancher AC, et al. Italian multicenter study on the safety and efficacy of coenzyme Q10 as adjunctive therapy in heart failure. Mol Aspects Med. 1994; 15(Suppl):287-294.

Hagen TM, Ingersoll RT, Lykkesfeldt J, Liu J, Wehr CM, Vinarsky V, Bartholomew JC, Ames AB. (R)-alpha-lipoic acid-supplemented old rats have improved mitochondrial function, decreased oxidative damage, and increased metabolic rate. FASEB J. 1999 Feb;13(2):411-8.

Kasahara T, Kato T. Nutritional biochemistry: A new redox-cofactor vitamin for mammals. Nature. 2003. April 24;422(6934):832.

Liu C, Wang XD, Bronson RT, Smith DE, Krinsky NI, Russell RM. “Effects of physiological versus pharmacological beta-carotene supplementation on cell proliferation and histopathological changes in the lungs of cigarette smoke-exposed ferrets. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Dec;21(12): 2245-53

Mukhtar H, Ahmad N. Tea polyphenols: prevention of cancer and optimizing health. Am J Clin Nutr. 2000 Jun; 71(6 Suppl): 1698S-702S.

Paolini M, Antelli A, Pozzetti L, Spetlova D, Perocco P, Valgimigli L, Pedulli GF, Cantelli-Forti G. “Induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes and over-generation of oxygen radicals in beta-carotene supplemented rats.” Carcinogenesis. 2001 Sep; 22(9); 1483-95

Rygh O. Reserches sur les oligo elements. “I. Des l’importance du strontium, du baryum, du thallium et du zinc dans les scorbuts.” Bull Soc Chim Biol. 1949;31:1052. Cited by (17, 19)

Sawaki K, et al. (2002) Sports performance benefits from taking natural astaxanthin characterized by visual activity and muscle improvements in humans. Journal of Clinical Therapeutics & Medicine 18(9): 73-88.

Stites TE, Rucker RB. “Physiological importance of quinoenzymes and the O-quinone family of cofactors.’ J Nutr. 2000 Apr;130(4):719-27

Yuan H, Gong A, Young CY. “Involvement of transcription factor Sp1 in quercetin-mediated inhibitory effect on the androgen receptor in human prostate cancer cells.” Carcinogenesis. 2005 Apr;26(4):793-801. Epub 2005 Jan 20.

Abstract

The effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and gene expression patterns in obese men.
Int J Obes (Lond). 2013 Aug 20.

Konings E, Timmers S, Boekschoten MV, Goossens GH, Jocken JW, Afman LA, Müller M, Schrauwen P, Mariman EC, Blaak EE.

Polyphenolic compounds, such as resveratrol, have recently received widespread interest because of their ability to mimic effects of calorie restriction. The objective of the present study was to gain more insight into the effects of 30 days resveratrol supplementation on adipose tissue morphology and underlying processes. Eleven healthy obese men were supplemented with placebo and resveratrol for 30 days (150 mg per day), separated by a 4-week washout period in a double-blind randomized crossover design. A postprandial abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsy was collected to assess adipose tissue morphology and gene expression using microarray analysis. Resveratrol significantly decreased adipocyte size, with a shift toward a reduction in the proportion of large and very-large adipocytes and an increase in small adipocytes. Microarray analysis revealed downregulation of Wnt and Notch signaling pathways and upregulation of pathways involved in cell cycle regulation after resveratrol supplementation, suggesting enhanced adipogenesis. Furthermore, lysosomal/phagosomal pathway and transcription factor EB were upregulated reflecting an alternative pathway of lipid breakdown by autophagy. Further research is necessary to investigate whether resveratrol improves adipose tissue function.

Tocotrienols: Vitamin E beyond tocopherols.
Life Sci. 2006 Feb 2;
Sen CK, Khanna S, Roy S.

Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Surgery, Davis Heart and Lung Research Institute, The Ohio State University Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio 43210, United States. In nature, eight substances have been found to have vitamin E activity: alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocopherol; and alpha-, beta-, gamma- and delta-tocotrienol. Yet, of all papers on vitamin E listed in PubMed less than 1% relate to tocotrienols. The abundance of alpha-tocopherol in the human body and the comparable efficiency of all vitamin E molecules as antioxidants, led biologists to neglect the non-tocopherol vitamin E molecules as topics for basic and clinical research. Recent developments warrant a serious reconsideration of this conventional wisdom. Tocotrienols possess powerful neuroprotective, anti-cancer and cholesterol lowering properties that are often not exhibited by tocopherols. Current developments in vitamin E research clearly indicate that members of the vitamin E family are not redundant with respect to their biological functions. alpha-Tocotrienol, gamma-tocopherol, and delta-tocotrienol have emerged as vitamin E molecules with functions in health and disease that are clearly distinct from that of alpha-tocopherol. At nanomolar concentration, alpha-tocotrienol, not alpha-tocopherol, prevents neurodegeneration. On a concentration basis, this finding represents the most potent of all biological functions exhibited by any natural vitamin E molecule. An expanding body of evidence support that members of the vitamin E family are functionally unique. In recognition of this fact, title claims in manuscripts should be limited to the specific form of vitamin E studied. For example, evidence for toxicity of a specific form of tocopherol in excess may not be used to conclude that high-dosage “vitamin E” supplementation may increase all-cause mortality. Such conclusion incorrectly implies that tocotrienols are toxic as well under conditions where tocotrienols were not even considered. The current state of knowledge warrants strategic investment into the lesser known forms of vitamin E. This will enable prudent selection of the appropriate vitamin E molecule for studies addressing a specific need.

Effect of a multivitamin and mineral supplement on infection and quality of life. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Ann Intern Med. 2003 Mar 4;138(5):365-71.
Barringer TA, Kirk JK, Santaniello AC, Foley KL, Michielutte R.

BACKGROUND: Use of multivitamin and mineral supplements is common among U.S. adults, yet few well-designed trials have assessed the reputed benefits.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of a daily multivitamin and mineral supplement on infection and well-being.
DESIGN: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
SETTING: Primary care clinics at two medical centers in North Carolina.
PARTICIPANTS: 130 community-dwelling adults stratified by age (45 to 64 years or >or=65 years) and presence of type 2 diabetes mellitus.
INTERVENTION: Multivitamin and mineral supplement or placebo taken daily for 1 year.
MEASUREMENTS: Incidence of participant-reported symptoms of infection, incidence of infection-associated absenteeism, and scores on the physical and mental health subscales of the Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form.
RESULTS: More participants receiving placebo reported an infectious illness over the study year than did participants receiving multivitamin and mineral supplements (73% vs. 43%; P < 0.001). Infection-related absenteeism was also higher in the placebo group than in the treatment group (57% vs. 21%; P < 0.001). Participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus (n = 51) accounted for this finding. Among diabetic participants receiving placebo, 93% reported an infection compared with 17% of those receiving supplements (P < 0.001). Medical Outcomes Study 12-Item Short Form scores did not differ between the treatment and placebo groups.
CONCLUSIONS: A multivitamin and mineral supplement reduced the incidence of participant-reported infection and related absenteeism in a sample of participants with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a high prevalence of subclinical micronutrient deficiency. A larger clinical trial is needed to determine whether these findings can be replicated not only in diabetic persons but also in any population with a high rate of suboptimal nutrition or potential underlying disease impairment.

Potent Cancer Chemopreventive Action of Palm Fruit Carotene and Various Kinds of Dietary Carotenoids.
2001 PIPOC International Palm Oil Congress Food Technology & Nutrition Conference.
Michiaki Murakoshi, Hoyoku Nishino

Although β-carotene has been considered to be a key cancer-preventive agent, other types of carotenoids, such as α-carotene, lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, etc., may also contribute to anti-carcinogenic action, since these carotenoids usually co-exist with beta-carotene in green and yellow vegetables and daily food stuffs, and are detectable in human blood and tissues. Therefore, it is of interest to investigate the biological activity of these various kinds of carotenoids more extensively. In the course of the study, we found that palm oil-derived natural carotene (palm fruit carotene), which contains of 60% β-carotene, 30% α-carotene and 10% others (γ-carotene, lycopene, etc.), showed potent anti-carcinogenic activity. Therefore, we compared the inhibitory activity of α-carotene, purified from palm fruit carotene, with that of β-carotene against two-stage mouse lung and skin carcinogenesis, and mouse spontaneous liver carcinogenesis models. α-Carotene showed the stronger anti-carcinogenic activities, than β-carotene, in these three experiments. And we also found that palm fruit carotene showed more stronger inhibitory activity than alpha-carotene on mouse spontaneous liver carcinogenesis.

Thus we have carried out more extensive studies on cancer preventive activities of natural carotenoids in our daily foods, of which lycopene, lutein, zeaxanthin, fucoxanthin, and β-cryproxanthin, etc., were found to have potent anti-carcinogenic activity. Further studies on various natural carotenoids, besides β-carotene, should be continued to obtain greater information about the potential of natural carotenoids in the field of cancer prevention.

Multivitamin/mineral supplementation improves plasma B-vitamin status and homocysteine concentration in healthy older adults consuming a folate-fortified diet.
J Nutr. 2000 Dec;130(12):3090-6.
McKay DL, Perrone G, Rasmussen H, Dallal G, Blumberg JB.

Elevated homocysteine has been identified as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. Although multivitamin use has been associated with low plasma homocysteine concentrations in several observational studies, no clinical trials have been conducted using multivitamin/mineral supplements to lower homocysteine. We determined whether a multivitamin/mineral supplement formulated at about 100% Daily Value will further lower homocysteine concentration and improve B-vitamin status in healthy older adults already consuming a diet fortified with folic acid. In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 80 free-living men and women aged 50-87 y with total plasma homocysteine concentrations of > or =8 micromol/L received either a multivitamin/mineral supplement or placebo for 56 d while consuming their usual diet. After the 8-wk treatment, subjects taking the supplement had significantly higher B-vitamin status and lower homocysteine concentration than controls (P: < 0.01). Plasma folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP) and vitamin B-12 concentrations were increased 41.6, 36.5 and 13.8%, respectively, in the supplemented group, whereas no changes were observed in the placebo group. The mean homocysteine concentration decreased 9.6% in the supplemented group (P: < 0.001) and was unaffected in the placebo group. There were no significant changes in dietary intake during the intervention. Multivitamin/mineral supplementation can improve B-vitamin status and reduce plasma homocysteine concentration in older adults already consuming a folate-fortified diet.

The effects of a multivitamin/mineral supplement on micronutrient status, antioxidant capacity and cytokine production in healthy older adults consuming a fortified diet.
J Am Coll Nutr. 2000 Oct;19(5):613-21.
McKay DL, Perrone G, Rasmussen H, Dallal G, Hartman W, Cao G, Prior RL, Roubenoff R, Blumberg JB.

BACKGROUND: Inadequate micronutrient intake among older adults is common despite the increased prevalence of fortified/enriched foods in the American diet. Although many older adults take multivitamin supplements in an effort to compensate, studies examining the benefits of this behavior are absent.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether a daily multivitamin/mineral supplement can improve micronutrient status, plasma antioxidant capacity and cytokine production in healthy, free-living older adults already consuming a fortified diet.
METHODS: An eight-week double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial among 80 adults aged 50 to 87 years (mean = 66.5 /- 8.6 years).
RESULTS: Multivitamin treatment significantly increased (p
CONCLUSIONS: Supplementation with a multivitamin formulated at about 100% Daily Value can decrease the prevalence of suboptimal vitamin status in older adults and improve their micronutrient status to levels associated with reduced risk for several chronic diseases.

The effect of vitamin-mineral supplementation on juvenile delinquency among American schoolchildren: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
J Altern Complement Med. 2000 Feb;6(1):31-5.
Schoenthaler SJ, Bier ID.

CONTEXT: Numerous studies conducted in juvenile correctional institutions have reported that violence and serious antisocial behavior have been cut almost in half after implementing nutrient-dense diets that are consistent with the World Health Organization’s guidelines for fats, sugar, starches, and protein ratios. Two controlled trials tested whether the cause of the behavioral improvements was psychological or biological in nature by comparing the behavior of offenders who either received placebos or vitamin-mineral supplements designed to provide the micronutrient equivalent of a well-balanced diet. These randomized trials reported that institutionalized offenders, aged 13 to 17 years or 18 to 26 years, when given active tablets produced about 40% less violent and other antisocial behavior than the placebo controls. However, generalization could not be made to typical schoolchildren without a controlled trial examining violence and antisocial behavior in public schools.
OBJECTIVES: To determine if schoolchildren, aged 6 to 12 years, who are given low dose vitamin-mineral tablets will produce significantly less violence and antisocial behavior in school than classmates who are given placebos. DESIGN: A stratified randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial with pretest and post-test measures of antisocial behavior on school property.
SETTINGS AND SUBJECTS: Two “working class,” primarily Hispanic elementary schools in Phoenix, Arizona. Approximately half of the potential schoolchildren participated, i.e., 468 students aged 6 to 12 years.
INTERVENTION: Daily vitamin-mineral supplementation at 50% of the U.S. recommended daily allowance (RDA) for 4 months versus placebo. The supplement was designed to raise vitamin-mineral intake up to the levels currently recommended by the National Academy of Sciences for children aged 6 to 11 years.
OUTCOME MEASURE: Violent and nonviolent delinquency as measured by official school disciplinary records.
RESULTS: Of the 468 students randomly assigned to active or placebo tablets, the 80 who were disciplined at least once between September 1st and May 1st served as the research sample. During intervention, the 40 children who received active tablets were disciplined, on average, 1 time each, a 47% lower mean rate of antisocial behavior than the 1.875 times each for the 40 children who received placebos (95% confidence interval, 29% to 65%, < 5 .020). The children who took active tablets produced lower rates of antisocial behavior in 8 types of recorded infractions: threats/fighting, vandalism, being disrespectful, disorderly conduct, defiance, obscenities, refusal to work or serve, endangering others, and nonspecified offenses.
CONCLUSION: Poor nutritional habits in children that lead to low concentrations of water-soluble vitamins in blood, impair brain function and subsequently cause violence and other serious antisocial behavior. Correction of nutrient intake, either through a well-balanced diet or low-dose vitamin-mineral supplementation, corrects the low concentrations of vitamins in blood, improves brain function and subsequently lowers institutional violence and antisocial behavior by almost half. This paper adds to the literature by enabling previous research to be generalized from older incarcerated subjects with a history of antisocial behavior to a normal population of younger children in an educational setting.
 
Requirements and toxicity of essential trace elements, illustrated by zinc and copper.
Am J Clin Nutr. 1995 Mar; 61(3 Suppl): 621S-624S.
Sandstead HH.

Early signs of toxicity of essential trace elements are important. Some trace elements are available over-the-counter (OTC) and/or are present at industrial waste sites. Physicochemically similar trace elements compete for ligands, impairing functions, which is exemplified by the zinc-copper antagonism described long ago by Van Campen, Hill and Matrone, and Klevay. Intestinal absorption of copper is inhibited by zinc. Thus risk of copper deficiency is increased when the molar ratio of zinc to copper (Zn:Cu) is high. As shown by experiments, copper deficiency can occur in humans. Manifestations include decreased erythrocyte copper-zinc superoxide dismutase, increased low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, decreased high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, decreased glucose clearance, decreased methionine and leucine enkephalins, and abnormal cardiac function. Calculation of a preliminary reference dose for OTC zinc that assumed high bioavailability and uncertain copper intakes established 9 mg as a safe amount for 60-kg adults.
 
The effect of 7 to 8 months of vitamin/mineral supplementation on the vitamin and mineral status of athletes.
Int J Sport Nutr. 1992 Jun;2(2):123-34.
Telford RD, Catchpole EA, Deakin V, McLeay AC, Plank AW.

Blood indicators of eight vitamins (B1, B2, B6, C, E, A, B12, folate) and six minerals (Cu, Mg, Zn, Ca, P, Al) were measured in 86 athletes before and after a 7- to 8-month period of training. During this period half consumed a multivitamin/mineral supplement and a matched group took a placebo. Following the supplementation period, blood biochemical indicators of B1, B6, B12, and folate status all increased but there were no significant effects of supplementation on B2, C, E, and A, or on the blood levels of any of the minerals. The supplementation had no effect on red or white cell counts or on hemoglobin levels. Irrespective of the supplementation, some blood measures varied according to sex, females evidencing significantly higher values than males for vitamins C, E, copper, magnesium, and aluminium, with B2 being higher in males. It is concluded that 7 to 8 months of multivitamin/mineral supplementation increased the blood nutritional status of some vitamins but did not affect any blood mineral levels, and that some blood nutritional indicators may vary according to sex.

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