Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is an advanced stage of dementia which progressively worsens with time and is associated with a high degree of mortality. The disease is not part of normal aging, and is likely caused by various processes that damage nerve cells. Many clinical symptoms are associated with AD, including cognitive decline, memory loss, disorientation, language impairment and so on plus AD also has a pronounced effect on the family or their caregivers. In 2010 in the US alone there were over five million cases and over twenty million worldwide. The cause of AD is not fully known but there
At the end of each of our chromosomes there is a non-coding, repeating DNA segment called a telomere. Telomeres act in a similar way to the protective cap on the end of a shoelace. Like the plastic or metal cap keeps the shoelace from fraying and unraveling, telomeres cap each strand of DNA to protect our chromosomes from damage.
There is significant research showing the correlation between telomere length and lifespan. Prematurely shortened telomeres have been linked to increased risk of disease and decreased longevity. As we age, our telomeres will naturally shorten by 20 to 40 base pairs each year but we do not have to be passive in this process.
So, what can we do to slow or reverse this progression? Indicators that increase the shortening of telomeres include environmental factors, stress, lifestyle and diet. Those whose professions require long-term exposure to environmental toxins and pollutants have been shown to have significant reduction in telomere length. The same is true for those with extended high stress levels, lack of sleep, a sedentary lifestyle or a diet low in antioxidants.
Finding ways to reduce and manage stress is crucial to maintaining telomere length. If you frequently find your stress levels unmanageable, consider taking up yoga, practicing meditation and taking short breaks throughout your workday. Talk to your healthcare provider about supplements that may be able to help. Getting seven to eight hours of sleep each night has also been shown to reduce stress levels and telomere deterioration. Adequate sleep allows the body to regenerate and repair cellular damage.
Research shows a correlation between exercise and the biomarkers associated with DNA damage. While more research is needed to determine optimal levels of physical activity as it relates to telomere protection, there is evidence that exercise supports the genetic expression involved in telomere stability and telomere length is found to be shorter in people who are sedentary. There are many ways to add physical activity into your day: take a brisk walk before work in the morning, use the stairs instead of the elevator whenever possible, or ride your bike instead of driving when the weather permits.
There is evidence that eating a diet rich in antioxidants like vitamin C, vitamin E, and beta-carotene is associated with longer telomeres. Antioxidants can potentially protect telomeres from oxidative damage caused by DNA damaging agents. Caloric restriction has also been shown to have a beneficial effect on telomere preservation. So, to reduce the pace of aging, we may consider eating fewer calories overall, and including antioxidants, fibre and healthy fats from avocados, fish and nuts in our diet. Foods such as broccoli, red grapes, flax and chia seeds, kiwi, black raspberries, green tea and tomatoes also help protect telomeres. The inclusion of supplemental omega 3-6-9, probiotics, coenzyme Q10 and L-glutamine have also been shown to promote telomere length.
It would seem that tiny telomeres play a large role in living a longer, healthier life. Moreover, the best ways to preserve them are to limit exposure to environmental toxins, stay stress-free, get regular exercise and eat an antioxidant rich diet. Protect your telomeres and live to tell about it!
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