This more recent review from 2014 provides insights into vanadium’s biologic functions. Vanadium complexes are cofactors for several enzymes and also exhibit insulin-mimetic properties. Thus, they are involved in the regulation of glucose metabolism, including in patients with diabetes. In addition, vanadium salts may also normalize blood pressure and play a key role in the metabolism of the thyroid and of iron as well as in the regulation of total cholesterol, cholesterol HDL and triglyceride (TG) levels in blood.
Gruzewska K, Michno A, Pawelczyk T, Bielarczyk H. Essentiality and toxicity of vanadium supplements in health and pathology. J Physiol Pharmacol. 2014 Oct;65(5):603-11. PMID: 25371519.