Magnesium is a mineral that is involved in over 300 biochemical processes in the body. One of its most important functions is that it plays a key role in producing energy and maintaining muscle and nerve function. Unfortunately most people do not have sufficient levels of this essential mineral for optimal health. Studies suggest that 50-90% of people are deficient in magnesium.
Mag Malate Renew is a 100% pure combination of magnesium and malic acid. Malic acid is ionized in the body to form malate, which is a key intermediate in the energy production cycle that makes ATP, the fuel that allows cells to function. Low levels of ATP are commonly found in people suffering with fibromyalgia and are believed to play a significant role in the physical and mental symptoms of the condition. This has been confirmed in several studies which have found that magnesium malate reduces the symptoms of fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue such as muscle pain and brain fog.
Those who have been diagnosed with fibromyalgia or chronic fatigue may find some relief from its mental and physical symptoms using magnesium malate, as well as those who have not been diagnosed but have low energy levels and persistent fatigue.
The increased production of ATP also has promising implications for athletes, and some preliminary evidence is suggesting that magnesium malate may help improve endurance. In addition, athletes can also benefit from magnesium’s ability to help with proper muscle function.
Mag Malate Renew is magnesium malate. Magnesium helps maintain proper muscle function, metabolize carbohydrates, proteins and fats, and is a factor in the maintenance of good health.
|Serving Size: 1 Capsule||Amount|
|Magnesium malate dihydrate||793 mg|
|Elemental magnesium||100 mg|
|Elemental malic acid||545 mg|
|Non-medical ingredients: |
microcrystalline cellulose, sodium stearyl fumarate. Capsule: hypromellose.
AOR™ guarantees that all ingredients have been declared on the label. Contains no wheat, gluten, corn, peanuts, sesame seeds, sulphites, mustard, soy, dairy, eggs or any animal byproduct.
Take 1-3 capsules daily with food, or as directed by a qualified health care practitioner.
Chronic Fatigue Syndrome
The information and product descriptions appearing on this website are for information purposes only, and are not intended to provide or replace medical advice to individuals from a qualified health care professional. Consult with your physician if you have any health concerns, and before initiating any new diet, exercise, supplement, or other lifestyle changes.
Magnesium plays a critical role in the production and stabilization of ATP. It activates almost all the enzymes of the glycolytic and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, which transform fats and sugars into useable energy. Without magnesium, ATP is quickly broken down into the low-energy adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate, which cannot deliver energy for cell metabolism and transport. It is also needed for the very structure of mitochondria, the cell’s “power plants:” magnesium deficiency causes swelling and disruption of the cristae (the folds in the inner mitochondrial membrane, where oxidative phosphorylation of ADP into ATP occurs) and leads to a decreased number of mitochondria per cell. Maintaining adequate ATP levels is critical to brain function. The brain stores 20% of total body ATP. Low levels of ATP may cause a decline in cognitive function – the “brain fog” so commonly reported, in which victims find themselves struggling through a dark haze, unable to concentrate and often forgetting simple thoughts and tasks.
When your body takes in energy from food, it cannot use it directly, just as you can’t use burning coal or a spinning windmill to directly operate a food processor. Instead, food energy must first be converted into a useable form: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the “univeral energy currency.” Low levels of ATP, and abnormalities in the glycolytic cycle, are commonly found in people suffering with fibromyalgia, and are believed to play a significant role in the physical and mental symptoms of the disease.
Fibromyalgia is a common clinical syndrome of generalized muscular pain, stiffness and chronic aching. It is characterized by reproducible tenderness on palpitation of specific anatomical sites called tender points. Other prominent symptoms include headaches, short term memory loss, forgetfulness, poor mood, sleep disturbances, mild fevers or chills, sore throat, and painful lymph nodes in the neck. White, middle aged (30- to 50-year old) women are much more likely to suffer fibromyalgia than are men. Restoring cellular ATP levels is therefore crucial to digging your way out of the pit of this debilitating disorder.
A lack of ATP is also thought to be responsible for the muscle weakness and pain that accompanies the disease. Here again, magnesium is crucial for adequate muscle metabolism and function. In magnesium deficiency, there is excessive muscle tension, leading to muscle spasms, restlessness, tics, and twitches. Also, histochemical studies in muscle show that the tender points in fibromyalgia victims’ muscles are deficient in ATP. Additionally, magnesium modulates the ion channels which regulate key nerve receptors (such as those for the 5HT3 serotonin receptor and N-mehtyl-D-aspartate (NMDA), which are involved in the neurological aspects of fibromyalgic pain.
Malic Acid has an important role in the generation of mitochondrial ATP, both under aerobic and hypoxic (low-oxygen) conditions. Under aerobic conditions, the malate is converted into oxaloacetate by the TCA energy cycle, providing electrons to the electron transport chain for oxidative phosphorylation of ADP through the malate-aspartate shuttle. Under anaerobic conditions, however, the electrons from sugars cannot be processed in the early glycolytic stages of energy production, and instead build up in the cytosol and inhibit glycolysis and normal cellular metabolism. Here again, malate can help, by removing cytosolic reducing equivalents through either reduction to succinate or oxidation to oxaloacetate, thereby reversing the inhibition of glycolysis. This process yields three molecules of ATP.
Two open trials have reported significant reductions in measurements of myalgic pain, as assessed by tender point index, in fibromyalgia victims supplementing with magnesium and malic acid. The dosages have ranged from 300 to 600 mg of magnesium and 1200 to 2400 mg of malate, with most symptoms improving in approximately eight weeks.
In animal experiments, malate has been shown to increase anaerobic endurance, as measured by increased swimming times. Malic acid is the only metabolite of the citric acid cycle which correlates positively with physical activity: experimental studies show that exercise-induced mitochondrial respiration is associated with increased malate levels only; other TCA metabolites remain unchanged. As well, malic acid is a potent aluminum chelator.
Magnesium supplements are commonly used to help maintain proper muscle function in the body, to help reduce the chronic fatigue and symptoms of fibromyalgia, to induce relaxation, and to enhance cellular energy production
Studies have found that the combination of magnesium and malic acid significantly reduces the symptoms of fibromyalgia. This combination may also be effective for relieving chronic fatigue syndrome. AOR’s formula provides safe and effective relief for conditions of pain and fatigue.
Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, Abraham GE. Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, crossover pilot study. J Rheumatol 1995 May; 22(5): 953-8.
Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson DI. Red blood cell magnesium levels and the chronic fatigue syndrome (ME); a case control study and a randomised controlled trial. Lancet 1991 Mar 30; 337(8744): 757-60.
Eisinger J, Plantamura A, Marie PA, Ayavou T. Selenium and magnesium status in fibromyalgia. Magnes Res 1994 Dec; 7(3-4): 285-8.
Abraham GE, Flechas JD. Management of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the Use of Magnesium and Malic Acid. Journal of Nutritional Medicine (1992) 3, 49-59.
Romano TJ, Stiller JW. Magnesium deficiency in fibromyalgia syndrome. J Nutr Med. 1994; 4(2): 165-7.
Treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome with Super Malic: a randomized, double blind, placebo controlled, cross over pilot study.
J Rheumatol 1995 May; 22(5): 953-8.
Russell IJ, Michalek JE, Flechas JD, Abraham GE.
OBJECTIVE. To study the efficacy and safety of Super Malic, a proprietary tablet containing malic acid (200 mg) and magnesium (50 mg), in treatment of primary fibromyalgia syndrome (FM).
METHODS: Twenty-four sequential patients withprimary FM were randomized to a fixed dose (3 tablets bid), placebo controlled, 4-week/course, pilot trial followed by a 6-month, open label, dose escalation (up to 6 tablets bid) trial. A 2-week, medication free, washout period was required before receiving treatment, between blinded courses, and again before starting open label treatment. The 3 primary outcome variables were measures of pain and tenderness but functional and psychological measures were also assessed.
RESULTS: No clear treatment effect attributable to Super Malic was seen in the blinded, fixed low dose trial. With dose escalation and a longer duration of treatment in the open label trial, significant reductions in the severity of all 3 primary pain/tenderness measures were obtained without limiting risks.
CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that Super Malic is safe and may be beneficial in the treatment of patients with FM. Future placebo-controlled studies should utilize up to 6 tablets of Super Malic bid and continue therapy for at least 2 months.
Red blood cell magnesium levels and the chronic fatigue syndrome (ME); a case control study and a randomised controlled trial.
Cox IM, Campbell MJ, Dowson DI.
Lancet 1991 Mar 30; 337(8744): 757-60.
The hypotheses that patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have low red blood cell magnesium and that magnesium treatment would improve the wellbeing of such patients were tested in a case-control study and a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, respectively. In the case-control study, 20 patients with CFS had lower red cell magnesium concentrations than did 20 healthy control subjects matched for age, sex, and social class (difference 0.1 mmol/l, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.05 to 0.15). In the clinical trial, 32 patients with CFS were randomly allocated either to intramuscular magnesium sulphate every week for 6 weeks (15 patients) or to placebo (17). Patients treated with magnesium claimed to have improved energy levels, better emotional state, and less pain, as judged by changes in the Nottingham health profile. 12 of the 15 treated patients said that they had benefited from treatment, and in 7 patients energy score improved from the maximum to the minimum. By contrast, 3 of the 17 patients on placebo said that they felt better (difference 62%, 95% CI 35 to 90), and 1 patient had a better energy score. Red cell magnesium returned to normal in all patients on magnesium but in only 1 patient on placebo. The findings show that magnesium may have a role in CFS.
Selenium and magnesium status in fibromyalgia.
Magnes Res 1994 Dec; 7(3-4): 285-8.
Eisinger J, Plantamura A, Marie PA, Ayavou T.
Muscle pain has been associated with magnesium (Mg) and selenium (Se) deficiency: magnesium and selenium status were investigated in fibromyalgia (FM). Erythrocyte (E), leucocyte (L) and serum (S) magnesium, serum selenium and zinc, and vitamin B1, B2, A or E status were assessed in 22 patients with fibromyalgia and in 23 age-matched healthy controls. LMg is significantly increased (P < 0.05) and EMg slightly decreased in fibromyalgia. These magnesium abnormalities are associated with previously-reported impairment of thiamin metabolism. Antioxidant status (as well as plasma malondialdehyde) is unchanged in fibromyalgia and serum selenium levels, slightly but not significantly correlated with serum magnesium, is normal.
Management of Fibromyalgia: Rationale for the Use of Magnesium and Malic Acid.
Journal of Nutritional Medicine (1992) 3, 49-59.
Abraham GE, Flechas JD.
Primary fibromyalgia (FM) is a common clinical condition affecting mainly middle-aged women. Of the etiologies previously proposed, chronic hypoxia seems the one best supported by recent biochemical and histological findings. We postulate the FM symptoms are predominantly caused by enhanced gluconeogensis with breakdown of muscle proteins, resulting from a deficiency of oxygen and other substances needed for ATP synthesis. We present data supporting a critical role for magnesium and malate in ATP production under aerobic and hypoxic conditions; and indirect evidence for magnesium and malate deficiency in FM. After treating 15 FM patients for an average of eight weeks with an oral dosage from with dosages of 1200-2400 mg of malate and 300-600 mg of magnesium, the tender point index (TPI) scores (x±SE) were 19·6±2·1 prior to treatment and 8±1·1 and 6·5±0·74, respectively, after an average of 4 and 8 weeks on the magnesium malate combination (p
Magnesium deficiency in fibromyalgia syndrome.
J Nutr Med. 1994;4(2): 165-7.
Romano TJ, Stiller JW.
Since patients with either fibromyalgia syndrome (FS) or low magnesium (Mg) levels can have fatigue, sleep disturbance and anxiety, it was necessary to determine if some patients with FS also have low Mg levels. Both red blood cell (RBC) and plasma Mg levels were measured in 100 consecutive FS patients and 12 osteoarthritis (OA) control patients. Compared to reference laboratory and OA controls, FS patients had significantly lower RBC Mg levels. The plasma Mg levels of FS patients were no different than the reference laboratory or OA controls. Some FS patients have low Mg levels, a problem that is potentially correctable.
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